An adult has 32 permanent teeth whereas children have 28 primary teeth. Hyperdontia is a condition whereby extra teeth grow other than the set number. Hyperdontia causes are related to genetics and other diseases.
These extra teeth are known as supernumerary teeth and are more common in adults and males.
They usually grow in the dental arches which are the covered areas that attach teeth to jaws.
Around 3.8 percent of people have one or more extra teeth.
It may not always be visible, in fact, it can be impacted i.e it does not erupt properly.
This article discusses the Hyperdontia causes, symptoms and treatments. Keep reading to know more!
The supernumerary teeth may usually result from hereditary diseases.
However, the exact cause is still unknown.
Some of these conditions include:
This is a rare condition whereby your body does not make an enzyme that breaks down fatty substances.
Hence, it causes stomach pain, extreme burning pain in your hands and feet, you are unable to sweat and get a blue or pink rash.
This inherited disorder makes you more susceptible to getting tumors.
It causes skin cysts, colon growth and skull growths.
People suffering from this are at risk of developing colorectal cancer young.
In this condition, your bones have deformities.
Hence, the skull and collar bone develop abnormally.
It also runs in families.
In this condition, joints become loose and dislocate easily.
The muscles and joints hurt.
It results in scoliosis and the skin is bruised easily.
Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip
This genetic condition results in an opening in the roof of the mouth or the upper lip.
Hence, people with a cleft lip or palate have difficulty speaking, hearing and eating.
Both of these defects happen in the early stages of pregnancy.
Plus, it can cause problems such as ear infections.
Hence, it is usually the hereditary and genetic conditions that may be responsible for the extra teeth growth.
But how can you identify them in order to treat them timely?
Let’s find out below!
The biggest symptoms are the teeth themselves.
They are either directly behind the baby teeth or adult teeth or close to them.
The shapes and location of extra teeth are different than that of the normal ones.
Hence, their different locations give them separate names.
A distomolar is an extra tooth that grows in line with the rest of the molars rather than growing around them.
Mesiodens is an extra tooth growing behind or around your front teeth.
These are usually behind the two front teeth and are one of the most common supernumerary teeth.
A paramolar is a tooth growing at the back of your mouth.
It will be found next to the molars.
Besides their locations, they are also categorized according to their shapes.
- Complex odontoma
- Compound odontoma
The tuberculate has a tube or barrel-like shape.
The complex odontoma is not a single tooth but rather an area that looks like tooth tissue grows in a disordered manner.
Compound odontoma is when there are small tooth-like growths that are near each other.
Hence, these are dental tissues growing in an unusual way.
A supplemental shape is similar to that of the tooth that the extra tooth grows near.
Hence, it is like a regular tooth usually found at the end of a series of teeth.
The conical tooth is like its name.
It has a peg shape whereby it is wide at the base and pointy near the top as it narrows down.
Hence, it looks like a sharp tooth similar to a cone.
It grows behind your front teeth (the incisors).
There are no other symptoms of the condition.
It is not painful, however, the teeth can put pressure on jaws and gums.
Resulting in pain and swelling plus causing overcrowding.
What Problems Do Extra Teeth Cause?
The overcrowding that hyperdontia causes can make your permanent teeth appear crooked.
While they are not painful, they come in extremely odd and awkward positions.
Hence, they do not look nice and you may eventually become conscious of your extra teeth.
That said, it is also possible that they do not break through the gums but end up affecting your other teeth.
They can hinder the eruption of your regular teeth by preventing them from coming in.
Moreover, if they grow beside the teeth, they can damage the roots of the other teeth.
It can also push your other teeth out of their positions.
Eventually, there is a lot of overcrowding due to the extra teeth.
In fact, cysts also form around your supernumerary teeth.
That poses a big problem.
In fact, 11 percent of people can have cysts near their extra teeth.
Rarely, teeth can also grow in your nasal cavity.
You can guess, this is not something pleasant.
Hence, problems do arise with having extra teeth.
What can be done in this situation is to diagnose them first.
You can easily see if the teeth have grown in.
However, if they are impacted then you will only be able to see them in a dental X-ray.
It is also possible to diagnose it when an expected tooth does not come in.
That can happen in the case of permanent tooth eruption from baby teeth.
Your dentist may also perform a CT scan for more detail.
That will allow them to see your mouth, jaw and teeth clearly.
Once you have diagnosed the condition, it is now time to treat it.
It is not necessary to treat all cases of hyperdontia.
Your doctor will take an X-ray to keep monitoring them but those supernumerary teeth can stay in position.
The treatment for the rest of the teeth depends on their position, type and effect they have on the nearby primary or permanent teeth.
If they pose problems then your dentist will proceed to take them out.
The problems can occur in chewing, dental treatment and oral health.
You are unable to chew food properly because of the extra teeth and they end up cutting your mouth whenever you try to.
You cannot brush and floss properly.
The extra teeth will also interfere with other dental treatments such as braces and implants.
They can come in the way of dental implant placement or bone graft.
If there are other problems such as their spontaneous eruption, damage to the roots of nearby teeth, cysts, pain and discomfort due to the overcrowding, then your doctor will prefer to take out the teeth.
They will also remove them if there is an underlying genetic condition that is the hyperdontia cause.
The extra teeth can also move nearby teeth out of place or prevent one from coming in.
That said, you do not need any grand reason in order to get these teeth removed.
If you are simply uncomfortable and conscious about how your teeth look, you can convey that to your dentist,
This can make you unhappy and it is best to have those teeth removed then.
Your dentist will immediately remove them if they are hindering the eruption of permanent teeth.
Doing so can prevent the lasting effects of crooked teeth or gum disease.
Treating and Living with Hyperdontia
There is disagreement on when is the right time to remove teeth that hyperdontia causes.
Some say immediately while others suggest waiting till a child is 8 to 10 years old.
The latter gives enough time for the roots of permanent teeth to form.
Hence, it will reduce the damage to permanent teeth when the dentist removes the supernumerary ones.
Your dentist will perform a normal tooth extraction if the extra teeth are visible.
However, if the teeth are covered by a bone layer or gum, then you will require surgery.
First, an oral surgeon will remove the bone layer or lift the gum.
Then after removing the tooth, the bone will start to heal and the surgeon will stitch the gum in place.
When does it become difficult to remove an extra tooth?
It is more difficult to remove an extra tooth when it fuses with the next tooth.
That can happen at the root or top level.
Once the teeth are removed, the regular teeth in a child can take up to 6 months to 3 years to erupt.
If you do not need any treatment but still face pain, then your dentist may recommend NSAIDs in order to counteract the mild discomfort.
Though, they may recommend getting them removed if the teeth are causing regular pain.
Remember to tell your dentist about all the pain, swelling, weakness or discomfort you feel if you have extra teeth.
Hyperdontia causes can be genetic or other reasons yet to be known.
However, one thing is for sure.
If the extra teeth make you uncomfortable, you can remove them.
Do not sacrifice how you feel about yourself just because it is not something serious.
Rather look your best and feel your best in every way possible.